Blenheim Spaniel skull
Frederic Wood Jones (b.1879, d.1954)
Skull and mandible of a Blenheim Spaniel (Canis lupus familiaris). Originally mounted on a comparative display board showing the concept of analogous or parallel variation, featuring five skulls of different brachycephalic domestic dog breeds. The display was prepared for the 1932 exhibition 'Man and His Ancestors' by Frederic Wood Jones, University of Melbourne’s Anatomy Department Head from 1930–1937. The label reads:
“Analogous or parallel variation. By this term I wish to express that similar characters occasionally make their appearance in several varieties or races descended from the same species and more rarely the offspring of widely distinct species.” Charles Darwin: Variation of animals and plants under domestication. 1868 Vol II p. 348
Brachyrhynchus. The variation of the facial bones that produces “pug-faced” animals is known as brachyrhyncus. It occurs among fish and birds as well as mammals. It has originated independently in several breeds of dogs. In some cases the brachyrhyncic varieties were established in Ancient Greece, in others they have originated recently. Bulldogs, French Bulldogs, Bostonbulls, Pugs, Blenheim Spaniels, King Charles Spaniels and Griffons, as well as the Pekinese and other Oriental breeds, have developed this variety. The specimens illustrate a case of parallel variation which, occurring spontaneously and independently in nature, has become established by human selection.